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# Numbers
The following operations work on numbers:
* + -- addition
* - -- subtraction
* * -- multiplication
* / -- division
* % -- modulus
* ** -- exponentiation
# LAB: Playing With Numbers
Answer the following questions using irb:
* How many seconds are in an hour?
* How many minutes are in a week?
* How many seconds old are you?
* How many years old is someone who is 1 billion seconds old?
# Order of operations
Q: What is 1 plus 2 times 3?
# Order of operations
Q: What is 1 plus 2 times 3?
A: *It depends!*
* `(1 + 2) * 3` is 9
* `1 + (2 * 3)` is 7
# Parentheses Are Free
When in doubt, use parentheses!
# Strings vs. Numbers
Hmmm....
1 + 2
"1" + "2"
"1 + 2"
# Strings plus Numbers
Hmmm again...
"1" + 2
Uh-oh!
TypeError: can't convert Fixnum into String
The problem is that Strings and Numbers are different TYPES, aka different CLASSES.
Don't panic! The solution is easy.
# Type Conversion
Numbers know a message that converts them into strings. `to_s` means "to string".
"1" + 2.to_s
Likewise, strings know a message that converts them into numbers.
1 + "2".to_i
`to_i` means "to integer".
Try this in irb!
# Advanced Number Theory (optional)
# WTFixnum?
The error said `can't convert Fixnum into String`.
Q: What is a Fixnum?
A: It's one type of number.
# Math is hard
There are many types of numbers!
Each is useful in different situations.
Without getting into too much detail, the two main number types in Ruby are:
* `Fixnum` - for *integers* like 12 or -1023
* `Float` - for *decimals* like 3.14
(Other number types include Complex, Rational, and Bignum.)
# Number to Number
You can convert from one type of number to another by sending a message:
* `to_i` turns a Float into a Fixnum
* `to_f` turns a Fixnum into a Float
Try this:
3.to_f
3.14.to_i
# String to Number
`to_f` and `to_i` also work on Strings:
"3.14".to_f
"3.14".to_i
and `to_s` works on numbers:
3.14.to_s
# Arithmetic
Try this in irb:
1 + 2
3 - 4
5 * 6
7 / 8
Whoa! What just happened?
# Integer Arithmetic
7 and 8 are *Integers*
so the result is an Integer
7/8 is somewhere between 0 and 1
but there is no integer between 0 and 1
so the computer has to *round down* to 0
# Floating Point Arithmetic
7.0/8.0
7.0 and 8.0 are *Floats*
so the result is a Float
and `0.875` can fit in a float
# Okay, that's enough math!